History of Persia

Communes, Cults, and Caliphs

Ancient communism is almost an oxymoron, but two movements in late antique and medieval Iran are often identified as “communist.” The Mazdakites and their spiritual successors, the Khorammis, both called for revolutionary change in ancient Iranian society. Communal property, equality of the classes, and a Zoroastrian worldview led both groups to challenge their supposed rulers.